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      過(guò)去完成時(shí) 

      1、概念:

      表示過(guò)去的過(guò)去。其構成是had +過(guò)去分詞構成。 那時(shí)以前  那時(shí) 現在        

      2、用法 

      a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等動(dòng)詞后的賓語(yǔ)從句。 She said (that) she had never been to Paris. 

      b. 狀語(yǔ)從句 在過(guò)去不同時(shí)間發(fā)生的兩個(gè)動(dòng)作中,發(fā)生在先,用過(guò)去完成時(shí);發(fā)生在后,用一般過(guò)去時(shí)。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 
      c. 表示意向的動(dòng)詞,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用過(guò)去完成時(shí)表示"原本…,未能…" We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.  

      過(guò)去完成時(shí)的時(shí)間狀語(yǔ)before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。 

      例句:He said that he had learned some English before. By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.   


      典型例題  

      The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office.  
      A. had written, left B,were writing, has left  C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left

      答案D. "把書(shū)忘在辦公室"發(fā)生在"去取書(shū)"這一過(guò)去的動(dòng)作之前,因此"忘了書(shū)"這一動(dòng)作發(fā)生在過(guò)去的過(guò)去,用過(guò)去完成時(shí)。句中when表示的是時(shí)間的一點(diǎn),表示在"同學(xué)們正忙于……"這一背景下,when所引導的動(dòng)作發(fā)生。因此 前一句應用過(guò)去進(jìn)行時(shí)。 
      注意: had no … when     還沒(méi)等…… 就…… had no sooner… than  剛…… 就…… He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.


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